Attribution of authorship
The attribution and confirmation of authorship for every research output involving a Monash author is a necessary and important part of the pre-publication stage of each work, whether the work is single or multi-authored. The fulfilment of this requirement at Monash University involves a combination of pre-publication and post-publication steps, including:
training and awareness-raising amongst all authors and supervisors of their responsibilities in relation to authorship;
confirmation of authorship for all research outputs;
maintenance of complete authorship records for all research outputs by individual authors/executive authors;
annual monitoring of compliance.
While attribution of authorship depends to some extent on the discipline, in all cases authorship must be based on making a substantial intellectual contribution to the work described and taking sole or joint responsibility for that contribution or, where appropriate, the work as a whole. Accordingly, authorship must be based upon a substantial contribution and responsibility for at least one, and usually more than one, of the following activities:
Conception and design of the project;
Analysis and interpretation of research data;
Drafting significant parts of the work or critically revising it so as to contribute to the interpretation.
Monash University recognises that individuals may also make significant contributions to a research output through significant or non-routine collection of data. Where this activity contributes to the intellectual shaping of a research output authorship may be appropriate.
Higher degree by research students may publish research outputs from their supervised work. In cases where their supervisor has participated in substantially conceiving, executing or interpreting some or all of the work in a way that meets the designated authorship criteria, the supervisor has the right to become a co-author of any such works.
Sometimes the editor of a significant collective work or anthology has responsibilities analogous to those listed above for authorship – in these cases similar criteria apply to ‘editor’ as ‘author’. However, the term editor should be applied only to a person who has played a significant role in the intellectual shaping of a publication.
Unacceptable inclusions of authorship
The following activities do not by themselves constitute a claim to authorship without substantial intellectual contribution to the work:
Being head of department, holding other positions of authority, or personal friendship with the authors;
Providing a routine technical contribution;
Providing routine assistance in some aspects of the project;
Acquisition of funding;
General supervision of the research team;
Providing data that has already been published or materials obtained from third parties (including the routine collation and provision of research source material).
Acknowledgement of contributors
All those who have otherwise contributed to the research (see authorship attribution criteria above), such as research assistants, technical writers, and research degree students have the right to be properly acknowledged.
Attribution of research output affiliation
In order that Monash University achievements and investment in research receive appropriate acknowledgement and contribute to all relevant measures of performance Monash must be attributed as the institution of affiliation by all Monash staff and students, and by joint, conjoint and adjunct appointments where appropriate (see Research Outputs and Authorship Procedures for details). This should be the case whenever the work was conducted at Monash University, even if an author/creator has subsequently left the institution, as the meaningful institutional support of both past and current university employers can count for some reporting purposes and is good research practice.
Declaration of interests in research output
Authors must be aware that perceived or real conflicts of interest (for example, sources of funding or other commercial interests or affiliations) may interfere with the perceived integrity of the research findings of Monash University. Therefore, in the confirmation of authorship, all authors must take responsibility for declaring any potential or actual conflict of interest according to the Conduct and Compliance Policy - Conflict of Interest Procedure.